Мізрах Ігор: «Ми є те, що ми їмо!»

Интервью

Як саме на людський організм впливає їжа, яку людина вживає та вода яку вона п’є? Для чого людині взагалі необхідно дбати про екологію Землі? Багато хто запитує про це, та не всі знають такі прості, але важливі речі… 

ЧистаВода

Людина, як і все живе на Землі, в основному, складається з води (ембріон на 97 %, немовля — на 77 %, доросла людина — на 60 %) і без води існувати не може. Втрата 6—8 % води викликає погане самопочуття, 10 % — незворотні зміни в організмі, а 15—20 % — смерть. А тим часом для підтримкижиттєдіяльності організмові потрібно не так вже й багато: 2—2,5 літра на добу. Хоча за все життя і набирається близько 75 тисячлітрів, але це лише мала частина від того, скільки людина витрачає насправді.

За розрахунками учених, структура споживання води виглядає так:

пиття й приготування їжі — 5 %.

змивний бачок у туалеті — 43 %.

ванна й душ — 34 %,

миття посуду — 6 %,

прання — 4%.

прибирання приміщення — 3 %,

інші потреби — 5 %.

Середні дані свідчать, що на господарсько-побутові потреби людині потрібноприблизно в десять разів більше води, ніжтільки для пиття й приготування їжі.

Центральним водопостачанням на Землікористуються 1,1 млрд. людей (280 л за добуна людину), ще 0,8 млрд. беруть воду з колонок (110 л на добу), а інша частиналюдства використовує тільки 50—60 л на добу. Правду кажуть, що розвитокцивілізації можна вимірювати в літрахспоживаної на душу населення води. Але ж окрім побутових потреб кожної людини є щевитрата на потреби промисловості й сільського господарства.

Забруднення поверхневих вод значноюмірою впливає на якість підземних вод. Найбільш незадовільний якісний стан підземних вод на Півдні України: в Одеській, Миколаївській, Херсонській і Запорізькійобластях та Автономній Республіці Крим. Понаднормове забруднення пестицидами спостерігається у Вінницькій, Житомирській, Луганській та Миколаївськійобластях і Автономній Республіці Крим. Нітратне забруднення, що перевищує ГДК, відмічається практично на всій територіїУкраїни, за винятком її західних областей.

ПродуктиБезГМО

З водою ситуація трохи прояснилася, але що ж до їжі?
Генетично модифіковані організми (ГМО) можна визначити як організми, в якихгенетичний матеріал (ДНК) зміненийнеможливим у природі способом. Цютехнологію часто називають «сучасноюбіотехнологією» або «генною технологією», а іноді «генною інженерією».

У виробництві харчових продуктіввикористовується: ГМ-сої — 70%, ГМ-кукурудзи — 25%, а також картопля, рис,ріпак, томати, цукровий буряк.

Основний виробник продукції із вмістомГМО — США (68%); Аргентина (11,8%); Канада (6%); Китай (3%).

Серед країн ЕС найбільша кількістьзареєстрованих повідомлень про використання ГМО належить Франції (28 % від загальної кількості по країнам ЄС), Італії(15 %), Іспанії (14 %) та Великобританії (12 %).

Останнім часом до цього процесуприєдналися інші країни, у тому числіУкраїна.

Протягом останніх років вражають маштабиплощ, на яких вирощують ГМО-рослини з різними господарсько-корисними ознаками: у 1996 році під посівами трансгенних сортіврослин у світі було зайнято близько 1,7 млн га, а в 2006 році -91,2 млн га.

На думку фахівців, впровадження ГМО маєбути зваженим. З одного боку, потрібновраховувати переваги, які може принести їхпромислове використання, а з іншого  необхідно гарантувати суспільству, що цітехнології не завдаватимуть шкоди здоров’юлюдини та довкіллю. Тим більше, щопроблема впливу ГМО на здоров’я людей через декілька поколінь, остаточно не вивчена.

ЕКОсистема

Отже можемо бути впевненими, що екологія надзвичайно важлива для якості харчових продуктів, що ми зрощуємо та питної води, яку ми вживаємо. 

Експерт журналу РЕЙТИНГ, Ігор Мізрах розповідає про поточну ситуація наступне: «Нажаль на сьогодні Україна не є найчистішою, в екологічному сенсі, точкою планети. Цьому слугують безліч чинників. Але наша задача максимально зберегти екосистему природи, яка нажаль змінюється дуже швидко». 

Проаналізуємо все по черзі. Сонце посилає нам відносно постійний потік променевої енергії. Тоді чому ж в одному регіоні дуже спекотно, а в іншому погода на тій же географічній широті є прийнятною, адже кут падіння сонячних променів і відповідно кількість надходження енергії на одиницю поверхні в них однакові?

Справа в тому, що Сонце посилає до нас енергію насамперед не у формі тепла, а в основному у формі короткохвильового (видима частина спектру — світло) і частково ультрафіолетового випромінювання.

Якщо енергія світла потрапляє на непрозору поверхню, вона переважно поглинається, перетворюючись в тепло (інфрачервоне випромінювання) і частково відбивається знову в простір. Відповідно, характер поверхні і її здатність відбивати сонячні промені в простір є визначальними в її нагріванні. Наприклад, в тундрі взимку може світити сонце, однак низький кут падіння світла і біла поверхня снігу на 98 % відбивають сонячні промені і енергія фактично не поглинається. Як результат — в Арктиці тепла мало.

А тепер перенесемося в Український Степ. При наявності добре розвинених рослин, що затінюють ґрунт листям, дуже високої температури в регіоні традиційно не буває. Тобто більшу частину енергії світла використовують і трансформують зелені рослини. Зовсім інша ситуація там, де в наявності результатів діяльності людини: на поверхні ґрунту полів немає рослинності (чорний пар, рілля, витоптані пасовища, дороги, будівлі, транспорт) або з малорозвиненою рослинністю. Тут сонячні промені майже повністю поглинаються і трансформуються в теплову енергію. Найвищу температуру повітря, як відомо, формують пустелі — простір, позбавлений суцільного рослинного покриву. Саме нагріта поверхня суходолу є тією своєрідною плитою, яка нагріває грунт і приземної повітря, робить його сухим. Формується постійна зона високого тиску, яку обходять стороною вологі фронти повітря.

Дуже схожа ситуація влітку формується в сучасній зоні Степу.

Зараз зона Степу становить 41,5% площі країни. Майже половина цих земель має аграрний потенціал.

За останні 20 років середня температура в цій ґрунтово-кліматичній зоні зросла на 1,7 С. Кількість тепла, що надходить за теплий період року, істотно зросла. Наприклад, в умовах 2012 сума температур вище ніж 10 С.

Особливо інтенсивно наростають високі температури повітря.

Такі кліматичні зміни викликає і підсилює недалекоглядна діяльність людини, зокрема розорення території. У зоні Степу перетворені в ріллю 62,2% території, відбувається активне знищення лісових насаджень (лісових смуг, байраків, лісів, розорані водоохоронні зони річок та водойм і т.п.). На півдні сьогодні майже немає перешкод для сильних сухих і гарячих, які інтенсивно висушують землю і забирають дефіцитну вологу у посівів. Орні землі через активні деградаційні процеси, влітку перетворюються на твердий, схожий на цеглу, моноліт, з глибокими тріщинами. У таких умовах рослинам вижити складно.

За останні десятиліття відбувається фактичне усунення кордонів природно-кліматичних зон на 100-150 км на північ. Умови вегетації в традиційній зоні Північному Степу (Дніпропетровська, Кіровоградська області та ін) За останні роки фактично відповідали зоні Південного Степу. А у Південному Степі (Херсонська, Запорізька області, Кримська АР та ін). Реально проявляються ознаки опустелення.

Збереження наявних тенденцій змін клімату в найближчі 20 років становлять реальну небезпеку фактичної втрати для інтенсивного землеробства не тільки зони Степу, але й понад половини площ орних земель країни і майже двох третин площі сучасної зони Лісостепу.

Ситуацію прокоментував наш експерт Ігор Мізрах: «Звичайно, зупинити небажані кліматичні тенденції неможливо, проте локально пом’якшити їх негативні наслідки цілком реально. Про це свідчать результати досліджень різних галузей науки. Наявні знання в процесі змін кліматичних умов вимагають і вимагатимуть істотного доповнення, конкретизації, системності та комплексності. Вони вже сьогодні необхідні для наукового обґрунтування «Програми збереження екологічно безпечних умов функціонування біоценозів і геоценоза зони Степу» і своєчасного втілення її в життя». 

Ігор Мізрах

Ексклюзивно для журналу РЕЙТИНГ

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