Биткоин подешевел в два раза с декабря

Мировые новости

Курс биткоина обвалился на 50 процентов с максимума в 20 тысяч долларов, которого достиг в середине декабря. Разбирались, чем вызвано падение криптовалют в январе.

Биткоин в середине декабря стоил рекордные 20 тысяч долларов за токен. С тех пор его стоимость начала стремительно падать и сейчас курс самой популярной криптовалюты едва превышает 10 тысяч долларов. Таким образом за месяц биткоин потерял 50 процентов.

Вместе с курсом падает и доля капитализации биткоина на рынке криптовалют. Месяц назад он был абсолютным монополистом – его капитализация составляля 335 миллиардов долларов при общей капитализации крипторынка в 570 миллиардов.

Вместе с биткоином дешевеют и другие криптовалюты. Самымим стойкими оказались Ethereum, Ripple и Tether – периодически они дорожали, пока остальные криптовалюты падали вслед за биткоином. Сейчас капитализаия всего крипторынка состовляет около 560 миллиардов долларов.

Тем временем, майнеры добыли уже 80 процентов биткоинов –  16,8 миллионов. Осталось добыть 4,2 миллиона и лимит в 21 миллион биткоинов, предусмотренный создателем криптовалюты Сатоши Накамото, будет достигнут.

Корреспондент.net решил разобраться, с чем связано падение биткоина и других криптовалют.

Китай запретил майнить биткоины

В начале 2018 года в интернете появилась копия документа, в котором Центробанк Китая прямо говорит о необходимости прекратить в стране майнинг биткоинов. Причинами называются “потребления огромного количества электроэнергии и подогревания спекуляций виртуальными валютами”.

В Китае находится почти 80 процентов майнинговых мощностей мира. Китайские регулятор может ограничить подачу электроэнергии добытчикам биткоинов, что серьезно отражается на рынок криптовалют.

Газета Wall Street Journal выяснила, что региональные власти уже приступили к выполнению предписания.

Напомним, что майнеры создают биткоины путем решения сложных математических задач, для этого им нужны мощное компьютерное оборудование. В КНР они находятся в малонаселенных окраинах с прохладным климатом.

Ферма по майнингу биткоина в Китае / EPA

Эксперты считают, что одновременное отключение расположенных в Китае мощностей маловероятно – в том числе потому, что Китай закручивает гайки в сфере оборота биткоинов на протяжении месяцев, и многие майнеры уже могли перевезти оттуда оборудование.

Кроме того, на днях стало известно, что в Китае под запрет могут попасть местные и иностранные платформы для трейдинга.

После того как в Поднебесной официально запретили криптобиржи, граждане КНР не отказались от криптовалюты и покупали ее выезжая в соседние страны, где открыт доступ к биржам. После этого возвращались на родину и торговали между собой через специальные приложения и платформы.

Южная Корея запрещает анонимность

Южнокорейские власти передумали запрещать криптовалюты, однако финансовые регуляторы страны начнут штрафовать инвесторов, торгующих криптовалютой на условиях анонимности.

Трейдерам, совершающим сделки с виртуальных аккаунтов, отвели месяц на то, чтобы переключиться с анонимных счетов на именные. Тем, кто откажется соблюдать новые правила, грозит штраф или даже лишение свободы.

Однако вероятность закрытия всех криптообменников остается, заявил недавно министр финансов Южной Кореи Ким Донг-Йон.

Отметим, что один из крупнейших частных биткоиновых обменников появился именно в Южной Кореи, поскольку страна переживает настоящий бум криптовалют.

Обменник биткоина / Getty

По объему заключенных сделок Южная Корея занимает до 25 процентов от общемирового рынка виртуальных валют, а биткоином, самым популярным видом “зашифрованных” денег, владеют свыше двух миллионов человек.

При этом корейские власти не признают биткоины полноценным финансовым продуктом, а деятельность криптообменников никак не регулируется.

Чтобы пресечь попытки отмывания денег, уклонения от уплаты налогов и спекуляции на курсах, регуляторы запретили банкам открывать новые виртуальные аккаунты, которые необходимы для покупки и продажи криптовалют, а держателям анонимных счетов предписали сконвертировать их в именные.

США обложили налогами обмен криптовалют

Операции по обмену криптовалют в США обязательно начнут облагаться налогом. Соответствующий закон в конце декабря подписал американской президент Дональд Трамп.

Новые правила вступили в силу 1 января 2018 года. Аналитики говорят, что этот закон стал одним их самых существенных изменений в законодательстве Америки за несколько последних десятилетий.

Биткоины в США / Getty

После подписания данного нормативного правового акта многие американские инвесторы лишились возможности пользоваться прорехой в налоговом законодательстве, потому что до сегодняшнего дня все операции с криптовалютами приравнивались к “обмену похожих активов”, что позволяло вкладчикам экономить существенные суммы денег.

Данный обходной метод даже имел свое собственное название у трейдеров – “правила обмена 1031”. С его помощью можно было обмениваться любой собственностью без уплаты налога.

Разочарование инвесторов

Также одной из причин падения курса криптовалют стало разочарование мелких инвесторов, которые закупились биткоинами с середины ноября по декабрь, когда его курс вырос втрое, ожидая, что криптовалюта продолжит расти.

Как говорят эксперты, те, кто покупал биткоины в конце декабря и начале января, ждали роста, при этом не отдавали себе отчет, что нужно ждать не менее, чем полгода. Однако терпение мелких инвесторов лопнуло, отмечают эксперты.

Отметим, что 16 января глава Европейского управления по надзору за рынком ценных бумаг Стивен Мейджор заявил агентству Bloomberg, что инвесторы должны быть готовы потерять все деньги, вложенные в биткоины.

По его мнению, экстремальная волатильность биткоина делает его использование в качестве валюты бессмысленным.

Один из крупнейших инвестиционных банков в мире Goldman Sachs заявил, что биткоин и ряд похожих криптовалют в долгосрочной перспективе будут иметь низкую или нулевую доходность и использоваться в качестве актива для накопления капитала подобно золоту.

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